Miller et al MSSE 2020 TheMuscleMorphologyOfEliteSprintRunning_Accepted.pdf (645.44 kB)
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The muscle morphology of elite sprint running

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journal contribution
posted on 12.10.2020, 13:26 by Robert Miller, Thomas G Balshaw, Garry J Massey, Sumiaki Maeo, Marcel B Lanza, Michael Johnston, Sam AllenSam Allen, Jonathan FollandJonathan Folland
The influence of muscle morphology and strength characteristics on sprint running performance, especially at elite level, is unclear. PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the differences in muscle volumes and strength between male elite sprinters, sub-elite sprinters, and untrained controls; and assess the relationships of muscle volumes and strength with sprint performance. METHODS: Five elite sprinters (100 m seasons best [SBE100]: 10.10 ± 0.07 s), 26 sub-elite sprinters (SBE100: 10.80 ± 0.30s) and 11 untrained control participants underwent: 3T magnetic resonance imaging scans to determine the volume of 23 individual lower limb muscles/compartments and 5 functional muscle groups; and isometric strength assessment of lower body muscle groups. RESULTS: Total lower body muscularity was distinct between the groups (controls < sub-elite +20% < elite +48%). The hip extensors exhibited the largest muscle group differences/relationships (elite, +32% absolute and +15% relative [per kg] volume vs sub-elite; explaining 31-48% of the variability in SBE100), whereas the plantarflexors showed no differences between sprint groups. Individual muscle differences showed pronounced anatomical specificity (elite vs sub-elite, absolute volume range +57% to -9%). Three hip muscles were consistently larger in elite vs. sub-elite (TFL, sartorius, gluteus maximus; absolute +45-57% and relative volume +25-37%), and gluteus maximus volume alone explained 34-44% of the variance in SBE100. Isometric strength of several muscle groups was greater in both sprint groups than controls, but similar for the sprint groups and not related to SBE100. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate the pronounced inhomogeneity and anatomically specific muscularity required for fast sprinting, and provides novel, robust evidence that greater hip extensor and gluteus maximus volumes discriminate between elite and sub-elite sprinters and are strongly associated with sprinting performance.

Funding

UK Athletics and the UK Strength and Conditioning Association

History

School

  • Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences

Published in

Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise

Volume

53

Issue

4

Pages

804 - 815

Publisher

American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM)

Version

AM (Accepted Manuscript)

Rights holder

© American College of Sports Medicine

Publisher statement

This paper was accepted for publication in the journal Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise and the definitive published version is available at https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000002522.

Acceptance date

14/09/2020

Publication date

2020-10-01

Copyright date

2021

ISSN

0195-9131

eISSN

1530-0315

Language

en

Depositor

Prof Jonathan Folland . Deposit date: 11 October 2020