Three-dimensional icosahedral phase field quasicrystal

We investigate the formation and stability of icosahedral quasicrytalline structures using a dynamic phase field crystal model. Nonlinear interactions between density waves at two length scales stabilize three-dimensional quasicrystals. We determine the phase diagram and parameter values required for the quasicrystal to be the global minimum free energy state. We demonstrate that traits that promote the formation of two-dimensional quasicrystals are extant in three dimensions, and highlight the characteristics required for 3D soft matter quasicrystal formation.