Time-resolved luminescence detection of peroxynitrite using a reactivity-based lanthanide probe
Peroxynitrite (ONOO−) is a powerful and short-lived oxidant formed in vivo, which can react with most biomolecules directly. To fully understand the roles of ONOO− in cell biology, improved methods for the selective detection and real-time analysis of ONOO− are needed. We present a water-soluble, luminescent europium(III) probe for the rapid and sensitive detection of peroxynitrite in human serum, living cells and biological matrices. We have utilised the long luminescence lifetime of the probe to measure ONOO− in a time-resolved manner, effectively avoiding the influence of autofluorescence in biological samples. To demonstrate the utility of the Eu(III) probe, we monitored the production of ONOO− in different cell lines, following treatment with a cold atmospheric plasma device commonly used in the clinic for skin wound treatment.
This work was supported by Loughborough University's Centre for doctoral training on Gas Plasma Interactions with Organic Liquids, and a Royal Society Research Grant (SJB). The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), grant no. 03Z22DN12 (KW) supported parts of the work.
- Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering