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AJIC-D-22-00156_R1.pdf (1.26 MB)

Toilet plume bioaerosols in healthcare and hospitality settings: A systematic review

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journal contribution
posted on 2022-07-28, 13:18 authored by Elizabeth Paddy, Oluwasola AfolabiOluwasola Afolabi, M SohailM Sohail

Background

The spread of some respiratory and gastro-intestinal infections has been linked to the exposure to infectious bioaerosols released after toilet flushing. This represents a health hazard and infection risk for immunocompromised patients, health workers and the public, particularly within the healthcare and hospitality settings. This systematic review provides current knowledge and identifies gaps in the evidence regarding toilet plume bioaerosols and the potential contributing role in spreading infections in healthcare and hospitality settings.

Methods

The PRISMA guidelines were used. Searches were run in PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar from 1950 to 30th June 2021. Searches of global and regional reports and updates from relevant international and governmental organisations were also conducted.

Results and Conclusion

The search yielded 712 results, and 37 studies were finally selected for this review. There is a lack of national and international bioaerosol sampling and exposure standards for healthcare and hospitality settings. Toilet plume bioaerosols are complex in nature, thus, measured bioaerosol concentrations in these settings depend on many variables and may differ for every pathogen responsible for a particular infectious disease. The contact and airborne transmission risks posed by toilet plume bioaerosols also remain unquantified. They are an important pathway that can increase the exposure to enteric and airborne pathogens. Hence, quantitative risk assessment and related research are needed to investigate these transmission risks.

Funding

Loughborough University

History

School

  • Architecture, Building and Civil Engineering

Published in

American Journal of Infection Control

Volume

51

Issue

3

Pages

324-333

Publisher

Elsevier

Version

  • AM (Accepted Manuscript)

Rights holder

© Elsevier

Publisher statement

This paper was accepted for publication in the American Journal of Infection Control and the definitive published version is available at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2022.07.006

Acceptance date

2022-07-08

Publication date

2022-07-19

Copyright date

2022

ISSN

0196-6553

Language

  • en

Depositor

Prof M. Sohail. Deposit date: 12 July 2022

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