Trabecula-level mechanoadaptation: numerical analysis of morphological changes
Background: Bone is a living material that, unlike man-made ones, demonstrates continuous adaptation of its structure and mechanical properties to resist the imposed mechanical loading. Adaptation in trabecular bone is characterised by improvement of its stiffness in the loading direction and respective realignment of trabecular load-bearing architecture. Considerable experimental and simulation evidence of trabecular bone adaptation to its mechanical environment at the tissue- and organ-levels was obtained, while little attention was given to the trabecula-level of this process. This study aims to describe and classify load-driven morphological changes at the level of individual trabeculae and to propose their drivers.
Method: For this purpose, a well-established mechanoregulation-based numerical model of bone adaptation was implemented in a user-defined subroutine that changed the structural and mechanical properties of trabeculae based on the magnitude of a mechanical stimulus. This subroutine was used in conjunction with finite-element models of variously shaped structures representing trabeculae loaded in compression or shear.
Results: In all analysed cases, trabeculae underwent morphological evolution under applied compressive or shear loading. Among twelve cases analysed, six main mechanisms of morphological evolution were established: reorientation, splitting, merging, full resorption, thinning, and thickening. Moreover, all simulated cases presented the ability to reduce the mean value of von Mises stress while increasing their ability to resist compressive/shear loading during adaptation.
Conclusion: This study evaluated morphological and mechanical changes in trabeculae of different shapes in response to compressive or shear loadings and compared them based on the analysis of von Mises stress distribution as well as profiles of normal and shear stresses in the trabeculae at different stages of their adaptation.
Mega-grants program, contract no. 075-15-2021-578 of May 31, 2021, hosted by Perm National Research Polytechnic University
- Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering
Published inComputers in Biology and Medicine
- VoR (Version of Record)
Rights holder© The Authors
Publisher statementThis is an Open Access Article. It is published by Elsevier under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence (CC BY). Full details of this licence are available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/