Loughborough University
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Transient liquid phase bonding with Ga-based alloys for electronics interconnections

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journal contribution
posted on 2023-02-27, 13:50 authored by Yi ChenYi Chen, Canyu Liu, Zhaoxia ZhouZhaoxia Zhou, Changqing LiuChangqing Liu

Significant demands on electronics packaging are driven by miniaturization, energy efficiency, high performance, and minimal carbon footprint. Liquid Ga and Ga-based alloys as interconnect materials exhibit a great potential in these applications due to the benefits including low melting points, non-toxicity, and stable high melting point intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed with other metals such as Cu. Taking advantages of transient liquid phase bonding (TLPB) technology, the uses of Ga-based alloys can be attractive as a more efficient and environmentally friendly method for interconnections. This study aims to address the technical challenges in the applications of Ga and Ga-based alloys for Cu bonding through the TLPB process. These include solderability of Ga-based solders on Cu, interfacial reactions during bonding, as well as the microstructure and properties of the resultant joints. In addition, the porosity and shear strength of the joints have been evaluated for better understanding of the reliability of the joints. The results show that Ga-based solders present an acceptable solderability given their wetting behavior observed. The constituent of the resultant joints consists of θ − CuGa2 and γ3 − Cu9Ga4 IMC phases as identified, which are formed as the results of interfacial reactions between liquid Ga-based alloys and Cu substrate. Indium, as an alloying element in the solders, has been found to be able to accelerate γ3 − Cu9Ga4 formation and reduce the porosity in the joints. It is also found that the pressure applied during TLPB also helps the reduction of porosity, as well as the increase of mechanical strength of the joints. These results provided not only new insight into the mechanism of the interfacial reaction between Ga-based liquid metals (GLMs) and solid Cu systems, but also a new manufacturing route for electronics integration.


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  • Aeronautical, Automotive, Chemical and Materials Engineering
  • Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering


  • Materials

Published in

Journal of Manufacturing Processes




1310 - 1319




  • VoR (Version of Record)

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© The Authors

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This is an Open Access Article. It is published by Elsevier under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence (CC BY). Full details of this licence are available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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Dr Zhaoxia Zhou. Deposit date: 27 February 2023