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Using evidence-based design to improve pharmacy department efficiency.

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journal contribution
posted on 29.02.2016, 13:26 by Fraser Greenroyd, Rebecca Hayward, Andrew Price, Peter DemianPeter Demian, Shrikant Sharma
Using a case study of a pharmacy department rebuild in the South West of England, this article examines the use of evidence-based design to improve the efficiency and staff well-being with a new design. This article compares three designs, the current design, an anecdotal design, and an evidence-based design, to identify how evidence-based design can improve efficiency and staff well-being by reducing walking time and distance. Data were collected from the existing building and used to measure the efficiency of the department in its current state. These data were then mapped onto an anecdotal design, produced by architects from interviews and workshops with the end users, and an evidence-based design, produced by highlighting functions with high adjacencies. This changed the view on the working processes within the department, shifting away from a focus on the existing robotic dispensing system. Using evidence-based design was found to decrease the walking time and distance for staff by 24%, as opposed to the anecdotal design, which increased these parameters by 9%, and is predicted to save the department 248 min across 2 days in staff time spent walking.


This work would not have been possible without funding from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) and BuroHappold Engineering Ltd.



  • Architecture, Building and Civil Engineering

Published in



GREENROYD, F.L. al., 2016. Using evidence-based design to improve pharmacy department efficiency. Health Environments Research and Design Journal, 10 (1), pp. 130-143.


SAGE Publications (© The Authors)


AM (Accepted Manuscript)

Publisher statement

This work is made available according to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) licence. Full details of this licence are available at:

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This paper was accepted for publication in the journal Health Environments Research and Design Journal and the definitive published version is available at: