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Variability and anisotropy of mechanical behavior of cortical bone in tension and compression

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The mechanical properties of cortical bone vary not only from bone to bone; they demonstrate a spatial viability even within the same bone due to its changing microstructure. They also depend considerably on different loading modes and orientations. To understand the variability and anisotropic mechanical behavior of a cortical bone tissue, specimens cut from four anatomical quadrants of bovine femurs were investigated both in tension and compression tests. The obtained experimental results revealed a highly anisotropic mechanical behavior, depending also on the loading mode (tension and compression). A compressive longitudinal loading regime resulted in the best load-bearing capacity for cortical bone, while tensile transverse loading provided significantly poorer results. The distinctive stress-strain curves obtained for tension and compression demonstrated various damage mechanisms associated with different loading modes. The variability of mechanical properties for different cortices was evaluated with two-way ANOVA analyses. Statistical significances were found among different quadrants for the Young’s modulus. The results of microstructure analysis of the entire transverse cross section of a cortical bone also confirmed variations of volume fractions of constituents at microscopic level between anatomic quadrants: microstructure of the anterior quadrant was dominated by plexiform bone, whereas secondary osteons were prominent in the posterior quadrant. The effective Young’s modulus predicted using the modified Voigt-Reuss-Hill averaging scheme accurately reproduced our experimental results, corroborating additionally a strong effect of random and heterogeneous microstructure on variation of mechanical properties in cortical bone.

Funding

The authors are grateful to the EPSRC UK (grant EP/G04886/1) for financial support of these studies.

History

School

  • Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering

Published in

JOURNAL OF THE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS

Volume

21

Pages

109 - 120 (12)

Citation

LI, S.-M., DEMIRCI, E. and SILBERSCHMIDT, V.V., 2013. Variability and anisotropy of mechanical behavior of cortical bone in tension and compression. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 21, pp. 109-120.

Publisher

© Elsevier

Version

AM (Accepted Manuscript)

Publication date

2013

Notes

This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 21, pp. 109-120. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmbbm.2013.02.021.

ISSN

1751-6161

Language

en