When soft law overshadows other European resources: Portuguese reconciliation policies and usages of Europe
journal contributionposted on 02.10.2013, 13:00 by Sotirios Zartaloudis
In the analysis of the usages of Europe in Portuguese reconciliation policies presented in this article, we found a general concordance / temporal sequence between EU and national level developments. In an overall context of limited policy change induced by the EU, the main actors using EU resources were political entrepreneurs: firstly, ministerial elites, and secondly, high-level officials either in government or in the independent bodies for gender equality. These actors used primarily cognitive and financial resources: the European Employment Strategy (cognitive usage), and EU funds (strategic usage), whereas legal resources were not used. Finally, cognitive usage occurred in the beginning of the reform process (the EU was reform initiator) whereas strategic usage took place to support existing goals during the reform process (the EU was reform supporter).
- Social Sciences
- Politics and International Studies