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A hybrid approach to tyre modelling based on modal testing and non-linear tyre-wheel motion

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posted on 15.06.2015, 10:42 authored by Vasileios Tsinias
The current state-of-the-art tyre models tend to be demanding in parameterisation terms, typically requiring extensive and expensive testing, and computational power. Consequently, an alternative parameterisation approach, which also allows for the separation of model fidelity from computational demand, is essential. Based on the above, a tyre model is introduced in this work. Tyre motion is separated into two components, the first being the non-linear global motion of the tyre as a rigid body and the second being the linear local deformation of each node. The resulting system of differential equations of motion consists of a reduced number of equations, depending on the number of rigid and elastic modes considered rather than the degrees of freedom. These equations are populated by the eigenvectors and the eigenvalues of the elastic tyre modes, the eigenvectors corresponding to the rigid tyre modes and the inertia properties of the tyre. The contact sub-model consists of bristles attached to each belt node. Shear forces generated in the contact area are calculated by a distributed LuGre friction model while vertical tread dynamics are obtained by the vertical motion of the contact nodes and the corresponding bristle stiffness and damping characteristics. To populate the abovementioned system of differential equations, the modal properties of the rigid and the elastic belt modes are required. In the context of the present work, rigid belt modes are calculated analytically, while in-plane and out-of-plane elastic belt modes are identified experimentally by performing modal testing on the physical tyre. To this end, the eigenvalue of any particular mode is obtained by fitting a rational fraction polynomial expression to frequency response data surrounding that mode. The eigenvector calculation requires a different approach as typically modes located in the vicinity of the examined mode have an effect on the apparent residue. Consequently, an alternative method has been developed which takes into account the out-of-band modes leading to identified residues representing only the modes of interest. The validation of the proposed modelling approach is performed by comparing simulation results to experimental data and trends found in the literature. In terms of vertical stiffness, correlation with experimental data is achieved for a limited vertical load range, due to the nature of the identified modal properties. Moreover, the tyre model response to transient lateral slip is investigated for a range of longitudinal speeds and vertical loads, and the resulting relaxation length trends are compared with the relevant literature.





  • Aeronautical, Automotive, Chemical and Materials Engineering


  • Aeronautical and Automotive Engineering


© Vasileios Ch. Tsinias

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This work is made available according to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) licence. Full details of this licence are available at:

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A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.