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A radiographic study of ossification in the spine and limbs of the human fetus

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posted on 23.07.2018, 08:42 by Keith M. Bagnall
Until recently relatively little has been known about factors which affect growth and development in early life. and which have a fundamental influence on later adult life. Thus pre- and postnatal growth and development must be studied as a continuum for they have a profound effect on ultimate physical and mental development. However, legal and ethical problems governing the availability of human fetal material diminish the prospects for assembling large comprehensive surveys. Because of this, there is often inaccuracy and inconsistency in many reports of human fetal development and, in particular, the study of certain regions has been considerably neglected. Ossification of the human fetal spine and limbs is one such example. The initial purpose of the present study was an attempt to increase knowledge in an area where there appears to be substantial gaps. [Continues.]



  • Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences


© Keith Michael Bagnall

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This work is made available according to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) licence. Full details of this licence are available at:

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A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy at Loughborough University.




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