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Accuracy of perturbation theory for slow-fast Hamiltonian systems

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posted on 11.10.2013, 08:13 authored by Tan Su
There are many problems that lead to analysis of dynamical systems with phase variables of two types, slow and fast ones. Such systems are called slow-fast systems. The dynamics of such systems is usually described by means of different versions of perturbation theory. Many questions about accuracy of this description are still open. The difficulties are related to presence of resonances. The goal of the proposed thesis is to establish some estimates of the accuracy of the perturbation theory for slow-fast systems in the presence of resonances. We consider slow-fast Hamiltonian systems and study an accuracy of one of the methods of perturbation theory: the averaging method. In this thesis, we start with the case of slow-fast Hamiltonian systems with two degrees of freedom. One degree of freedom corresponds to fast variables, and the other degree of freedom corresponds to slow variables. Action variable of fast sub-system is an adiabatic invariant of the problem. Let this adiabatic invariant have limiting values along trajectories as time tends to plus and minus infinity. The difference of these two limits for a trajectory is known to be exponentially small in analytic systems. We obtain an exponent in this estimate. To this end, by means of iso-energetic reduction and canonical transformations in complexified phase space, we reduce the problem to the case of one and a half degrees of freedom, where the exponent is known. We then consider a quasi-linear Hamiltonian system with one and a half degrees of freedom. The Hamiltonian of this system differs by a small, ~ε, perturbing term from the Hamiltonian of a linear oscillatory system. We consider passage through a resonance: the frequency of the latter system slowly changes with time and passes through 0. The speed of this passage is of order of ε. We provide asymptotic formulas that describe effects of passage through a resonance with an improved accuracy O(ε3/2). A numerical verification is also provided. The problem under consideration is a model problem that describes passage through an isolated resonance in multi-frequency quasi-linear Hamiltonian systems. We also discuss a resonant phenomenon of scattering on resonances associated with discretisation arising in a numerical solving of systems with one rotating phase. Numerical integration of ODEs by standard numerical methods reduces continuous time problems to discrete time problems. For arbitrarily small time step of a numerical method, discrete time problems have intrinsic properties that are absent in continuous time problems. As a result, numerical solution of an ODE may demonstrate dynamical phenomena that are absent in the original ODE. We show that numerical integration of systems with one fast rotating phase leads to a situation of such kind: numerical solution demonstrates phenomenon of scattering on resonances, that is absent in the original system.



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A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.

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