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Acute effects of exercise on appetite, appetite regulatory hormones and energy intake in lean and overweight men and women

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posted on 04.05.2017, 11:40 by Jessica A. Douglas
The acute effects of exercise on appetite, ad libitum energy intake and gut hormone responses have received much attention over the past two decades. The experiments in this thesis have contributed to this research by examining appetite, acylated ghrelin, peptide-YY (PYY), leptin and ad libitum energy intake responses to two consecutive days of moderate-high intensity running. To achieve this 15 individuals aged 21 (2) y, with a BMI of 23.0 (1.9) kg·m-2 were recruited. Additionally, appetite, acylated ghrelin, PYY, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and ad libitum energy intake responses to an acute bout of moderate intensity treadmill exercise were compared in lean and overweight/obese (ow/ob) males and females. Two separate cohorts of individuals were recruited; 22 lean individuals and 25 ow/ob individuals (aged 38 (15) and 45 (12) y, with a BMI of 22 (2) and 29 (3) kg·m 2, for lean and ow/ob individuals, respectively). In Chapter 4, two consecutive days of 60 min treadmill running at 70% V̇O2 peak did not produce compensatory changes in appetite or energy intake over two days. There were no main effects of trial for acylated ghrelin or leptin. However a main effect of trial for PYY indicated higher concentrations on the exercise than control trial. A meta-analysis was completed in Chapter 5, suggesting further research in the effects of acute exercise on appetite regulatory hormones in individuals who are ow/ob was necessary. In Chapter 6, 60 min of treadmill exercise at 60% V̇O2 peak did not alter appetite sensations or energy intake in the 7 h after exercise in lean and ow/ob males and females. There were no main effects of sex, BMI or trial for acylated ghrelin; however, PYY and GLP-1 concentrations were higher in exercise than control trials. This thesis has demonstrated that over two days, high volume exercise does not stimulate compensatory appetite regulatory changes, in lean healthy males. In the short term, lean and ow/ob males and females respond similarly to acute exercise, showing no alterations in appetite or food intake responses, whilst PYY and GLP-1 concentrations are higher in exercise than control trials.



  • Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences


© J.A. Douglas

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A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.