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Co-design of augmented reality textbook for children’s collaborative learning experience in primary schools

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posted on 02.05.2018, 15:32 by Haifa Alhumaidan
Augmented Reality (AR) is a recent technology that allows a seamless composition between virtual objects and the real world. This practice-based research uses the affordances of AR to design an AR textbook for collaborative learning experience. It identifies the key concepts of children s AR textbooks for the designing and evaluation of collaborative learning experiences. These concepts were used to develop a conceptual framework for the AR textbook that considers collaborative experience, learning and usability. Informed by these concepts, the research also has identified the design features which are unique to AR affordances which can be integrated in the school textbooks to develop a collaborative AR textbook for primary school children. The research follows a participatory design approach to involve the users of the AR textbook in the design process. The researcher has conducted three co-design studies involving primary school children and adults using cooperative inquiry techniques. The first study uses low-tech prototyping to find the overall direction of designing the AR textbook. After the development of the first AR textbook prototype, two formative evaluations have been conducted using cooperative inquiry critiquing, and layered elaboration techniques. Throughout these studies, a conceptual framework has been developed namely, Experience, Learn and Use (ELU) for the designing and evaluation of children s AR textbooks for collaborative learning experience. This framework is based on the adaption of Janet Read s Play, Learn, Use (PLU) model that defines children s relationships with the interactive technologies. The research proposes the ELU framework as a useful classification framework in the evaluation process, which informs the design features of the AR textbook which are related to the concepts of collaborative experience, learning and usability. The practical component of the thesis proposes a sample of an AR textbook that is integrated in the regular school curriculum. It demonstrates the design features which can be implemented in other textbooks to support collaborative learning experiences for primary school children. The documentation of the co-design process provides a practical framework for co-designing an AR textbook with children, as well as an evidence of using the ELU framework in practice. 4 This research also contributes in bridging the gap between AR and Child-Computer Interaction (CCI) communities, through the use of common CCI methods in the AR development. This research has resulted in key design principles which contribute original knowledge to the literature of the AR for children s education considering the CCI perspective. These important principles are informed by the collaborative experiences, learning and usability aspects that establish a framework for the design and evaluation of collaborative AR textbook for children. The eight identified principles by this research are, Joint Textbooks, Personalised AR Experience, Interactive AR Book, Communication-Based Learning, Rewarding AR feedback, Audio AR Textbook, Intuitive AR Markers, and Mutual AR Display. The research introduces the definition for each of the concepts and a demonstration of the related design features in the outcome of the AR textbook prototype.


Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University (Riyadh, Saudia Arabia). Saudi Arabia, Ministry of Education, Saudi Arabian Cultural Bureau in the UK.



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© Haifa Alhumaidan

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This work is made available according to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) licence. Full details of this licence are available at:

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A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.