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Computerised analyses of estimating inaccuracy and tender variability: causes, evaluation and consequences

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posted on 26.03.2018, 13:30 by Refaat H. Abdel-Razek
The two elements of a tender sum are the cost estimate and the mark-up. Variations in tenders can be attributed to inaccuracy in the estimate and variations in the applied mark-up. The weaknesses of current published literature are that the causes of the inaccuracy in the estimate or the variability in a mark-up are not defined in such a way that they can be analysed and evaluated. The inaccuracy of a cost estimate results from combining the inaccuracy of its constituent elements. Thus the inaccuracy of each element needs to be evaluated. The consequences of estimating inaccuracy and mark-up variability are inadequately described in current literature, which tends to assume that mark-up variability is negligible. This research addresses these weaknesses. [Continues.]



  • Architecture, Building and Civil Engineering


© Refaat Hassan Abdel-Razek

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This work is made available according to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) licence. Full details of this licence are available at:

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A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy at Loughborough University.



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