File(s) under permanent embargo

Reason: If you own the copyright in this thesis and you would like the thesis to be made available, please email

Determinants of regulatory compliance in households using non-utility water supply systems: the case of Uyo, Nigeria

posted on 09.07.2020, 11:21 by IJ Ikpeh
Water supply system from source, treatment, storage and distribution for use has come under pressure from increased population and urbanisation. In search of solutions, the governance theme emerged as a path to sustainable water supply and management and has been in fore of research since 2003. Accompanying this conceptual shift has been moves towards frameworks for managing water supply with some focusing on consumer behaviours such as willingness to pay water bills. However, behavioural studies in the water supply have focused on utilities, whereas the evidence indicates that water supply in developing countries, especially sub-Saharan Africa is dominated by non-utility water supply systems (NUWSS).

The emerging dominance of NUWSS as the primary source of water supply motivates a re-thinking of existing management protocols as well as assessing determinants of regulatory compliance in NUWSS. The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) is used to target determinants to regulatory compliance across the groups of indicators identified for the regulation of water supply systems. Specifically, TPB was used to initiate this re-thinking process in the management of water supply in NUWSS by examining the influence of behavioural, demographic, and social factors on regulatory compliance by households using NUWSS in Uyo, Nigeria.

The variables in TPB was used to structure the data collection instruments, while indicators enumerated by International Water Association was adapted to formulate the questions posed to respondents. The research used a mixed-method study design with samples drawn from residential areas in Uyo, Nigeria. A total of five hundred and fifty households using NUWSS were surveyed, twenty-nine households interviewed, documents were analysed, and other stakeholders in water supply consulted concerning regulation in NUWSS. Structural equation modelling (SEM) and thematic analysis were used to analyse the data.

The findings indicate that regulatory compliance in NUWSS are significantly and directly influenced by subjective norms and self-efficacy. Also, the analysis indicated that attitudes mediate the relationships between subject norms and regulatory compliance. Additionally, SEM revealed that the independent variables of attitude, subjective norms and self-efficacy accounted for 29% variance in regulatory compliance in NUWSS. Specifically, the variables in TPB influenced regulatory compliance in NUWSS through crucial elements such as: reciprocal motivation, preferential compliance, misconceptions and ambiguity, self-discipline among others. These key factors acted as motivations or constraints on regulatory compliance in NUWSS. Further research should assess how these elements influence compliance in the water supply that is dominated by NUWSS.



  • Architecture, Building and Civil Engineering


Loughborough University

Rights holder

© Iniobong James Ikpeh

Publication date



A doctoral thesis. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.




Robby Soetanto ; Aaron Anvuur ; Ian Smout

Qualification name


Qualification level


This submission includes a signed certificate in addition to the thesis file(s)

I have submitted a signed certificate