Expedient methodology for capturing anthropometric data of encumbered personnel utilising 3D scanning technology
thesisposted on 06.05.2020 by Frank Schwarz-Muller
In order to distinguish essays and pre-prints from academic theses, we have a separate category. These are often much longer text based documents than a paper.
While numerous anthropometric surveys have been conducted to capture anthropometric 3D data of lightly clad individuals (semi-nude) with whole-body scanners, there is a lack of data to characterise individuals encumbered by protective clothing and equipment. The collection of clothed anthropometric data in addition to the semi-nude data allows the relationship between the two to be determined. Adding the offset to the semi-nude database permits estimates of passenger space to be established and statistically valid digital human models of clothed user populations to be developed. The precise replication of postures during the scanning process is a prerequisite for determining the offset between semi-nude and clothed data. To this end, four generations of mechanical positioning aids for the standing and a positioning aid for the seated posture were developed. The overarching objective of the iterative design process was to restrain the individual without compromising data integrity. In two studies utilising a structured light scanner and two different laser scanners it was shown that in the standing posture head, shoulder, arms, hips and feet and in the seated posture head, elbows, arms, hips, knees and feet must be effectively restrained to reduce the mean absolute variability in longitudinal and lateral directions to ≤ 10 mm. Plexiglas tubes and wires below the resolution of the scanners were used as predominant design elements to ensure that they remain invisible on scans. This way, the prerequisite was created to evaluate space claim differences between semi-nude and clothed anthropometric data collected in a study from military personnel. Methodologies for the preparation of the clothed 3D data for analysis were presented, which included the precise alignment of scans as well as the reduction of the data to be analysed without compromising the validity of the results. Furthermore, 1D, 2D and 3D techniques were described for the space claim analysis. Finally, a case study showed, how the data collected in the PhD research and the methods developed for their analysis were applied for the validation of a clothed digital human model. Ultimately, the tools and methods presented in this thesis allow the provision of easy-to-use, clothed data for better workplace design.