Loughborough University
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Optical analysis of multi-stream GDI sprays under various engine operating conditions

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posted on 2011-06-22, 13:47 authored by Mehdi Mojtabi
The design and optimisation of a modern gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine requires a thorough understanding of the fuel sprays characteristics and atomisation process.Therefore this thesis presents a detailed optical analysis of atomisation, penetration and interaction of multi-stream GDI sprays under engine relevant pressures and temperatures. The characteristics of the fuel spray in a GDI engine have a great influence on the fuel-air mixing and combustion processes as fuel injectors must provide adequate atomisation for vaporisation of the fuel to take place before combustion is initiated, whilst also avoiding spray impingement on the cylinder walls or piston crown. In this study multi-stream injectors, to be used within GDI engines, are quantified using Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) on an atmospheric bench. This process allowed for highly detailed spray analysis of droplet velocities and diameter at precise locations, using a three dimensional traverse, within the injector spray. The aim of the study was to analyse plume interaction between separate plumes of multi-stream injectors. Three multi-stream injectors were subjected to testing; two six-hole injectors and one three-hole injector. The injectors differed by having different distances between the plumes. The effect of fuel type on the liquid break-up and atomisation was investigated using Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) and Mie imaging. Mie imaging was also performed to capture images of fuel from a multi-stream injector as it was sprayed into a pressure chamber which was used to recreate the conditions found in an engine likely to cause flash boiling. In total, five variables were investigated: fuel pressure, ambient pressure, ambient temperature, fuel composition and injector geometry. Once processed, the recorded images allowed measurement of spray tip penetration and cone angle. Qualitative data on the change in shape of the spray was also available. The results showed that flash boiling has potential to reduce droplet diameters and improve fuel vaporisation, however, the associated change in spray shape must be taken into account to avoid problems with spray impingement. Keywords: Gasoline Direct Injection, multi-stream injector, atomisation, penetration, cone angle, Mie imaging, Phase Doppler Anemometry, flash boiling.



  • Aeronautical, Automotive, Chemical and Materials Engineering


  • Aeronautical and Automotive Engineering


© Mehdi Mojtabi

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A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.

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  • en