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Optimised control of an advanced hybrid powertrain using combined criteria for energy efficiency and driveline vibrations

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posted on 09.08.2018, 14:17 by Ashley J. Kells
This thesis discusses a general approach to hybrid powertrain control based on optimisation and optimal control techniques. A typical strategy comprises a high level non-linear control for optimised energy efficiency, and a lower level Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) to track the high-level demand signals and minimise the first torsional vibration mode. The approach is demonstrated in simulation using a model of the Toyota Prius hybrid vehicle, and comparisons are made with a simpler control system which uses proportional integral (PI) control at the lower level. The powertrain of the Toyota Prius has a parallel configuration, comprising a motor, engine and generator connected via an epicyclic gear train. High level control is determined by a Power Efficient Controller (PE C) which dynamically varies the operating demands for the motor, engine and generator. The PEC is an integrated nonlinear controller based on an iterative downhill search strategy for optimising energy efficiency and battery state of charge criteria, and fully accounts for the non-linear nature of the various efficiency maps. The PEC demand signals are passed onto the LQR controller where a cost function balances the importance of deviations from these demands against an additional criterion relating to the amplitude of driveline vibrations. System non-linearity is again accounted for at the lower level through gain scheduling of the LQR controller. Controller performance is assessed. in simulation, the results being compared with a reference system that uses simple PI action to deliver low-level control. Consideration is also given to assessing performance against that of a more general, fully non-linear dynamic optimal controller.


Ricardo plc, Midlands Technical Centre (Leamington Spa).



  • Aeronautical, Automotive, Chemical and Materials Engineering


  • Aeronautical and Automotive Engineering


© A.J. Kells

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This work is made available according to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) licence. Full details of this licence are available at:

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A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy at Loughborough University.



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