Polynomial matrix decomposition techniques for frequency selective MIMO channels
thesisposted on 26.03.2010 by Martin Davies
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For a narrowband, instantaneous mixing multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) communications system, the channel is represented as a scalar matrix. In this scenario, singular value decomposition (SVD) provides a number of independent spatial subchannels which can be used to enhance data rates or to increase diversity. Alternatively, a QR decomposition can be used to reduce the MIMO channel equalization problem to a set of single channel equalization problems. In the case of a frequency selective MIMO system, the multipath channel is represented as a polynomial matrix. Thus conventional matrix decomposition techniques can no longer be applied. The traditional solution to this broadband problem is to reduce it to narrowband form by using a discrete Fourier transform (DFT) to split the broadband channel into N narrow uniformly spaced frequency bands and applying scalar decomposition techniques within each band. This describes an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) based system. However, a novel algorithm has been developed for calculating the eigenvalue decomposition of a para-Hermitian polynomial matrix, known as the sequential best rotation (SBR2) algorithm. SBR2 and its QR based derivatives allow a true polynomial singular value and QR decomposition to be formulated. The application of these algorithms within frequency selective MIMO systems results in a fundamentally new approach to exploiting spatial diversity. Polynomial matrix decomposition and OFDM based solutions are compared for a wide variety of broadband MIMO communication systems. SVD is used to create a robust, high gain communications channel for ultra low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) environments. Due to the frequency selective nature of the channels produced by polynomial matrix decomposition, additional processing is required at the receiver resulting in two distinct equalization techniques based around turbo and Viterbi equalization. The proposed approach is found to provide identical performance to that of an existing OFDM scheme while supporting a wider range of access schemes. This work is then extended to QR decomposition based communications systems, where the proposed polynomial approach is found to not only provide superior bit-error-rate (BER) performance but significantly reduce the complexity of transmitter design. Finally both techniques are combined to create a nulti-user MIMO system that provides superior BER performance over an OFDM based scheme. Throughout the work the robustness of the proposed scheme to channel state information (CSI) error is considered, resulting in a rigorous demonstration of the capabilities of the polynomial approach.
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