Resonance mode power supplies with power factor correction
thesisposted on 11.01.2017, 16:25 authored by Kanishka A. Amarasinghe
There is an increasing need for AC-DC converters to draw a pure sinusoidal current at near unity power factor from the AC mains. Most conventional power factor correcting systems employ PWM techniques to overcome the poor power factor being presented to the mains. However, the need for smaller and lighter power processing equipment has motivated the use of higher internal conversion frequencies in the past. In this context, resonant converters are becoming a viable alternative to the conventional PWM controlled power supplies. The thesis presents the implementation of active power factor correction in power supplies, using resonance mode techniques. It reviews the PWM power factor correction circuit topologies previously used. The possibility of converting these PWM topologies to resonant mode versions is discussed with a critical assessment as to the suitability of the semiconductor switching devices available today for deployment in these resonant mode supplies. The thesis also provides an overview of the methods used to model active semiconductor devices. The computer modelling is done using the PSpice microcomputer simulation program. The modifications that are needed to the built in MOSFET model in PSpice, when modeling high frequency circuits is discussed. A new two transistor model which replicates the action of a OTO thyristor is also presented. The new model enables the designer to estimate the device parameters with ease by adopting a short calculation and graphical design procedure, based on the manufacturer's data sheets. The need for a converter with a high efficiency, larger power/weight ratio, high input power factor with reduced line current distortion and reduced cost has led to the development of a new resonant mode converter topology, for power processing. The converter presents a near resistive load to the mains thus ensuring a high input power factor, while providing a stabilised de voltage at the output with a small lOOHz ripple. The supply is therefore ideal for preregulation applications. A description of the modes of operation and the analysis of the power circuit are included in the thesis. The possibility of using the converter for low output voltage applications is also discussed. The design of a 300W, 80kHz prototype model of this circuit is presented in the thesis. The design of the isolation transformer and other magnetic components are described in detail. The selection of circuit components and the design and implementation of the variable frequency control loop are also discussed. An evaluation of the experimental and computer simulated results obtained from the prototype model are included in the presentation. The thesis further presents a zero-current switching quasi-resonant flyback circuit topology with power factor correction. The reasons for using this topology for off-line power conversion applications are discussed. The use of a cascoded combination of a bipolar power transistor and two power MOSFETs i~ the configuration has enabled the circuit to process moderate levels of power while simultaneously switching at high frequencies. This fulfils the fundamental precondition for miniaturisation. It also provides a well regulated DC output voltage with a very small ripple while maintaining a high input power factor. The circuit is therefore ideal for use in mobile applications. A preliminary design of the above circuit, its analysis using PSpice, the design of the control circuit, current limiting and overcurrent protection circuitry and the implementation of closed-loop control are all included in the thesis. The experimental results obtained from a bread board model is also presented with an evaluation of the circuit performance. The power factor correction circuit is finally installed in this supply and the overall converter performance is assessed.
- Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering