Tyre models for vehicle handling analysis under steady-state and transient manoeuvres
thesisposted on 01.02.2011, 16:59 by George Mavros
The work presented in this thesis is devoted to the study of mechanism of tyre force generation and its influence on handling dynamics of ground vehicles. The main part of the work involves the development of tyre models for use under steady-state and transient operating conditions. The general capability of these models is assessedin a full vehicle simulation environment. The interaction between tyre and vehicle dynamics is critically evaluated and the observed vehicle behaviour is related to the inherent characteristics of different tyre models. In the field of steady-state tyre modelling, two versions of a numerical tyre model are developed. The modelling procedure is carried out in accordance with the viscoelastic properties of rubber, which influence the mechanical properties of the tyre structure and play a significant role in the determination of friction in the tyre contact patch. Whilst the initial simple version of the tyre model assumes a parabolic pressure distribution along the contact, a later more elaborate model employs a numerical method for the calculation of the actual normal pressure distribution. The changes in the pressure distribution as a result of variations in the rolling velocity and normal load influence mainly the levels of self-aligning moment, whilst the force characteristics remain practically unaffected. The adoption of a velocity dependent friction law explains the force generating behaviour of tyres at high sliding velocities. The analysis is extended to the area of transient tyre behaviour with the development of a tyre model appropriate for the study of transient friction force generation within the contact patch. The model incorporates viscoelasticity and inertial contributions, and incorporates a numerical stick-slip law. These characteristics are combined together for the successful simulation of transient friction force generation. The methodologies developed for the modelling of transient friction and steady-state tyre force generation are combined and further extended in order to create a generic transient tyre model. This final model incorporates a discretised flexible viscoelastic belt with inertia and a separate fully-dynamic discretised tread, also with inertia and damping, for the simulation of actual prevailing conditions in the contact patch. The generic tyre model appears to be capable of performing under a variety of operating conditions, including periodic excitations and transient inputs which extend to the non-linear range of tyre behaviour. For the evaluation of the influence of the aforementioned tyre models on the handling responses of a vehicle, a comprehensive vehicle model is developed, appropriate for use in handling simulations. The two versions of the steady-state models and the generic transient model are interfaced with the vehicle model, and the response of the vehicle to a step-steer manoeuvre is compared with that obtained using the Magic Formula tyre model. The comparison between the responses is facilitated by the definition of a new measure, defined as the non-dimensional yaw impulse. It is found that the transience involved in tyre behaviour may largely affect the response of a vehicle to a prescribed input.
- Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering