Hot ultrasonically assisted turning of Ti-15V3Al3Cr3Sn: experimental and numerical analysis
2013-07-31T07:35:23Z (GMT) by
Titanium alloys have outstanding mechanical properties such as high hardness, a good strength-to-weight ratio, excellent fatigue properties and high corrosion resistance. However, several inherent properties including their low thermal conductivity and high chemical affinity to tool materials impairs severely their machinability with conventional machining techniques. Conventional machining of Ti-based alloys is typically characterized by low depths of cuts and relatively low feed rates, thus adversely affecting the material removal rates during the machining process. Recently, a non-conventional machining technique known as ultrasonically assisted turning (UAT) was introduced to machine modern alloys, in which low-energy, high-frequency vibration is superimposed on the movement of a cutting tool during a conventional cutting process. This novel machining technique results in a multi-fold decrease in the level of cutting forces with a concomitant improvement in surface finish of machined modern alloys. Also, since the late 20th century, machining of wear resistant materials that soften when heated has been carried out with hot machining techniques. In this work, a new hybrid machining technique called Hot Ultrasonically Assisted Turning (HUAT) is introduced for processing of a Ti-based alloy Ti-15V3Al3Cr3Sn. In this technique, UAT is combined with a traditional hot machining technique to gain combined advantages of both schemes for machining of intractable alloys. HUAT of the studied alloy was analysed experimentally and numerically to demonstrate its benefits in terms of reduction in cutting forces over a wide range of industrially relevant speed-feed combinations. Thermal evolution in the cutting process was assessed, and the obtained results were compared with FE simulations to gain knowledge of temperatures reached in the cutting zone. The developed novel turning process appeared to improve dry turning of the Ti alloy with significant reduction of average cutting forces without any substantial metallurgical changes in the workpiece material. Nano-indentation, light microscopy and SEM studies were performed to get an insight into the development of hardness in a zone near the machined surface in the workpiece. Backscatter electron microscopy was also used to evaluate the formation of α-Ti during the novel HUAT. No grain changes or α-precipitation were observed in machined workpieces in conventional and hybrid turning processes. 3D elasto-plastic thermomechanically coupled finite-element models for the orthogonal turning process were developed for conventional turning (CT), hot conventional turning (HCT), UAT and HUAT, followed by a more realistic novel 3D finite-element model for the oblique turning process. These 3D models were used to study the effects of cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut, ultrasonic vibration, ultrasonic frequency, rake angle and tool nose radius) on cutting forces, temperature in the process zone and stresses. The later model was used to analyse the effect of vibration and heat on the radial and axial components of cutting forces in HUAT, which was not possible with the developed 3D orthogonal-turning model. Comparative studies were performed with the developed CT, HCT, UAT and HUAT finite-element models and were validated by results from experiments conducted on the in-house prototype and in literature. The HUAT for the Ti-15333 was analysed experimentally and numerically to demonstrate the benefits in terms of a significant reduction in the cutting forces and improvement in surface roughness over a wide range of industrially relevant speed-feed combinations.