Supplementary information files for Fast and ballistic contractions involve greater neuromuscular power production in older adults during resistance exercise
Supplementary Information files for article Fast and ballistic contractions involve greater neuromuscular power production in older adults during resistance exercise
Neuromuscular power is critical for healthy ageing. Conventional older adult resistance training (RT) guidelines typically recommend lifting slowly (2-s; CONV), whereas fast/explosive contractions performed either non-ballistically (FAST-NB) or ballistically (FAST-B, attempting to throw the load) may involve greater acute power production, and could ultimately provide a greater chronic power adaptation stimulus. To compare the neuromechanics (power, force, velocity, and muscle activation) of different types of concentric isoinertial RT contractions in older adults.
Twelve active older adult males completed three sessions, each randomly assigned to one type of concentric contraction (CONV or FAST-NB or FAST-B). Each session involved lifting a range of loads (20–80%1RM) using an instrumented isoinertial leg press dynamometer that measured power, force, and velocity. Muscle activation was assessed with surface electromyography (sEMG).
Peak and mean power were markedly different, according to the concentric contraction explosive intent FAST-B > FAST-NB > CONV, with FAST-B producing substantially more power (+ 49 to 1172%, P ≤ 0.023), force (+ 10 to 136%, P < 0.05) and velocity (+ 55 to 483%, P ≤ 0.025) than CONV and FAST-NB contractions. Knee and hip extensor sEMG were typically higher during FAST-B than CON (all P < 0.02) and FAST-NB (≤ 50%1RM, P ≤ 0.001).
FAST-B contractions produced markedly greater power, force, velocity and muscle activation across a range of loads than both CONV or FAST-NB and could provide a more potent RT stimulus for the chronic development of older adult power.
Arthritis Research UK Centre for Sport, Exercise and Osteoarthritis
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