Supplementary information files for In-situ comparison of high-order detonations and low-order deflagration methodologies for underwater unexploded ordnance (UXO) disposal
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Supplementary files for article In-situ comparison of high-order detonations and low-order deflagration methodologies for underwater unexploded ordnance (UXO) disposal
The unexploded ordnance (UXO) on the seabed off Northwest Europe poses a hazard to offshore developments such as windfarms. The traditional removal method is through high-order detonation of a donor explosive charge placed adjacent to the UXO, which poses a risk of injury or death to marine mammals and other fauna from the high sound levels produced and is destructive to the seabed. This paper describes a sea-trial in the Danish Great Belt to compare the sound produced by high-order detonations with that produced by deflagration, a low-order disposal method that offers reduced environmental impact from noise. The results demonstrate a substantial reduction over high-order detonation, with the peak sound pressure level and sound exposure level being around 20 dB lower for the deflagration. The damage to the seabed was also considerably reduced for deflagration, although there was some evidence for residues of explosives related chemicals in sediments.
UK's Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy's Offshore Strategic Environmental Assessment programme under contract OESEA-21-127
- Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering