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Simple model flows demonstrating the combined effect of thermobaricity
with either salinity variations or nonlinear temperature-dependence in the equation
of state of water are investigated. An inviscid flow exhibits a three-layer
behaviour, resulting in the formation of a mid-depth temperature maximum,
such as is observed in some high-latitude oceans and deep lakes. This may be
subsequently overtaken by nonlinear frontogenesis, which in the viscous case
is shown to generate a thermal bar. Thermobaricity shifts the thermal bar
towards the colder water, and initially produces a slope in the downwelling
plume, but this transient feature disappears as the dominant frontogenesis tilts
the plume backto the vertical.