Loughborough University
Thesis-2017-ArjmandiTash.pdf (5.77 MB)

Interaction of droplets and foams with solid/porous substrates

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posted on 2017-05-04, 16:13 authored by Omid Arjmandi-Tash
Current problems on the interaction of complex liquids (i.e. droplets or foams) with complex surfaces (i.e. soft deformable or porous surfaces) are addressed in the following areas: (1) wetting of deformable substrates and surface forces, (2) kinetics of wetting and spreading of non-Newtonian liquids over porous substrates, (3) kinetics of spreading of non-Newtonian solutions over hair, (4) free drainage of foams produced from non-Newtonian solutions, and (5) foam drainage placed on porous substrates. Equilibrium of liquid droplets on deformable substrates was investigated and the effect of disjoining pressure action in the vicinity of the apparent three phase contact line was taken into account. It was proven that the deformation of soft solids is determined by the action of surface forces inside the transition zone. Spreading/imbibition of blood, which is a power law shear thinning non-Newtonian liquid, over a dry porous layer was investigated from both theoretical and experimental points of view. It was found that blood droplet spreading/imbibition over porous substrates shows two different behaviours: (i) partial wetting case with three subsequent stages: initial fast spreading, constant maximum droplet base and the shrinkage of the droplet base; (ii) complete wetting case with only two stages: initial fast spreading and the shrinkage of the droplet base. The wetting of hair tresses by aqueous solutions of two commercially available polymers, AculynTM 22 (A22) and AculynTM 33 (A33) was investigated experimentally. Both A22 and A33 solutions demonstrate well pronounced shear thinning behaviour. Initial contact angle of the A22 and A33 solutions on hair tresses was about 100o. The A22 droplets remained on the hair tress after spreading for at least half an hour. However, a fast penetration of the A33 droplets inside the hair tresses was observed when advancing contact angle in the course of spreading reached a critical value of about 60o. This could be explained by Cassie−Wenzel wetting transition which is caused by filling the pores inside the porous media by liquid. The influence of non-Newtonian rheology of A22 and A33 solutions on foam drainage was also investigated experimentally and a new theory of foam drainage was presented for the case of free drainage. For lowly viscous polymeric solutions and under the assumption of rigid surface of the Plateau border, the predicted values of the time evolution of the foam height and liquid content were in good agreement with the experimental data. However, in the case of highly viscous solutions an interfacial mobility at the surface of the Plateau border has to be taken into account. A completely new theory of foam drainage placed on porous substrate was developed. It was found that there are three different regimes of the process: (i) a rapid imbibition, the imbibition into the porous substrate dominates as compared with the foam drainage; (ii) an intermediate imbibition, that is, the imbibition into the porous substrate and the rate of drainage are comparable; (iii) a slow imbibition, the rate of drainage inside the foam is higher than the imbibition into the porous substrate for a period of time and a free liquid layer is formed over the porous substrate.


European Science Foundation Marie Curie ITN grant CoWet; Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council; Procter & Gamble, USA; European Space Agency under grants PASTA and MAP EVAPORATION; COST project MP1106.



  • Aeronautical, Automotive, Chemical and Materials Engineering


  • Chemical Engineering


© Omid Arjmandi Tash

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This work is made available according to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) licence. Full details of this licence are available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

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A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.


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